Sioux Nation Treaty Council - est 1894

A summary of the 1851 and 1868 treaties

The Great Sioux Nation, whose real name is the Oceti Sakowin, is comprised of  seven sub-nations who spoke the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota language.  The Tituwan sub-nation spoke the Lakota dialect and lived in the western most portion.  The Oceti Sakowin (Great Sioux Nation) occupied a vast land area that covered 24 American states and parts of 4 Canadian Provinces. Other smaller nations also lived within the area as the Indigenous concept of territory followed natural law and was much different than the European concept of territory. The people of the Oceti Sakowin (Great Sioux Nation) originated from the mouth of Wind Cave in the Black Hills.  The Black Hills were so sacred that they were used for ceremonial, prayers, medicinal, and burial purposes only.

Read more: A Summary of the 1851 and 1868 Treaties


Charmaine White Face  Zumila Wobaga


Contact: Charmaine White Face cwhiteface (at) aol (dot) com 

(read report on this forumn ) 

Rapid City, SD -- This year marks the 136th Anniversary of the signing of the Fort Laramie Treaty of 1868 between the United States and the Great Sioux Nation. The upholding of the Treaty has been a point of contention with the more than 60,000 Native American people who live in SD. Yet, candidates running for public office never mention this issue in their campaigns. Rather the issues plaguing the reservations which are the issues of poverty, such as the lack of adequate housing, health care, and substance abuse are the basis of campaign discourse.

In an effort to educate the public, and the candidates, to this issue, so important to most tribal members living in western South Dakota, Defenders of the Black Hills is hosting a Treaty Commemoration and a Candidate Forum on May 1, 2004, beginning at 1:00 p.m. The event will be held outdoors in the circular arbor in a field near St. Isaac Jogues Church, 220 Wright St, Rapid City, SD. The site overlooks the city and has a magnificent view of the Black Hills, long held sacred by the Great Sioux Nation and many other tribes in North America and Canada. In case of rain, the hall at nearby Mother Butler Center will be used.

Respected elder and Lakota delegate to the United Nations, Antoine Black Feather, has been invited to speak about the international status of the Fort Laramie Treaty and his work in the international arena. Black Feather has worked with the UN Human Rights Commission for more than 20 years, and is known by many ambassadors and delegates for his work on behalf of the Lakota people. Indigenous representatives from throughout the globe look to him at the UN meetings for his leadership and wisdom in working at the international level.

The Candidate Forum was triggered by a special election to fill the lone SD House seat in the US Congress recently vacated by Rep. William Janklow when he was sentenced to prison for the accidental death of a motorcyclist due to reckless driving. Democrat Stephanie Herseth is running against Republican Larry Diedrich for that position. Making this race more interesting is Lakota man, Terry Begay, who entered the race as a Libertarian Party candidate.

A seat in the Senate is also being sought by current Senate Minority Leader, Tom Daschle, Democrat, and former Congressman, John Thune, Republican. Newspaper publisher and Oglala tribal member Tim Giago recently withdrew from the race in which he was running as an Independent.

A small panel of Lakota and Dakota men and women have been asked to participate in the Forum in a discussion of the treaty issue, and the effects on the current needs of Native people in South Dakota. This is the first time that US Congressional candidates have been asked to attend a meeting of this kind. In early March, the candidates were sent a questionnaire on current issues and how these relate to the treaty and asked for their ideas regarding solutions.

Defenders of the Black Hills is a volunteer organization working to educate the public about the treaties and current effects on the natural environment within the treaty territory. 



Donations may be sent by check or money order to:
Sioux Nation Treaty Council,
PO Box 2003, Rapid City, SD 57709. 

Or, purchase the book, Indigenous Nations Rights in the Balance, from Living Justice Press and all royalties go to the Treaty Council.  Thank you


Sioux Nation Treaty Council
PO Box 2003
Rapid City
SD 57709  USA


"...CONCLUSION  Various historians has determined that the "Sioux Nation Treaty Council" formally formed in 1894, shortly after the Wounded Knee massacre. The Sioux Nation Treaty Council represents all of the Sioux Tribes (Approx 49 Tribes), and all other Sioux Treaty Councils would be subordinate to it, regardless of the Treaty Council's name...."  See Bielecki Report pages 7 & 8,  Oct. 5, 2008 (Bielecki Report)